Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Christianity

After reading the book Azazil by Youssef Zeidan, which revolves around the history of Christianity and created much controversy, I fired some question to my "history mentor" Jacques soliciting his valuable contribution. Jacques did not disappoint. I copy his response here and his invitation for further discussion.


<blockquote>First the word <font color='#ff0000'><big><b>"Christ"</b></big></font>; Many <br />people believe this is the "last name" of Jesus: Jesus Christ like Jacques <br />Leblanc !!! This is totally wrong. There are historical evidences of the <br />existence of a man known at the time as Jesus of Nazareth, named from the place <br />where he used to live his childhood. In his days, he was described as a prophet, <br />or as a philosopher or as a political activist.  "Christ" is a greek word <br />meaning "anointed". It was not used by Jesus himself (he spoke only aramean) nor <br />by any one around him. It was introduced by the church as a greek translation of <br />the hebrew "mashiah" (anointed). As a non-believer, I prefer to call him Jesus <br />of Nazareth.<br/><br/><big><b><font color='#ff0000'>Whether Mary was the mother of Jesus <br />of Nazareth</font></b></big> is generally accepted, but whether she was <br /><b><big><font color='#ff0000'>the mother of God</font></big></b> is another piece <br />of cake !!! It immediately raises a question that was hotly disputed for <br />centuries: the nature of Jesus, whether human or godly or both. This question <br />today leaves most people entirely indifferent but the people of the first five <br />centuries AD became wildly impassioned with it.<br/><br/>Upon Jesus's death around 30 <br />AD some followers gathered together around two main beliefs: 1)Jesus was the <br />Messiah announced by the some of the prophets in the Bible and 2)Jesus came back <br />into life on the third day after he was put to death by the romans authorities <br />in Jerusalem. Those followers were not anything more than a sect among Judaism. <br />The turn was the result of Paul (or Saul) deciding to use the teaching of this <br />sect and preach it to the Gentiles. He was a jew but held an office in the roman <br />administration that was ruling the whole Mediterranean area.As a public officer <br />in the eastern part of the Roman Empire, he was using greek as his daily <br />language. The oldest christian writings we have are letters he wrote around 50 <br />AD. Christianity could just as well have been called Paulinity since it is his <br />preaching which took this teaching beyond the limits of the jewish community. <br/><br/>In <br />the early writings, Jesus of Nazareth is reffered to as Messiah (Jesus of <br />Nazareth is supposed to have personally refused to be referred as such) or the <br />Son of Man (from Daniel's chapter in the Bible) or Son of God (a traditional <br />title of the kings of the Séleucide kingdom established after Alexander the <br />Great passed away in the 4th century BC; this kingdom used to cover Syria, <br />Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and probably Koweit. It disappeared in the 1st century BC, <br />when the Romans moved in) It is in the second century AD that the idea of the <br />godly nature of Jesus emerged in some circles. This was a touchy subject since <br />if Jesus is of a godly or divine nature, then several episodes of his life are <br />loosing significance: when he is tempted, sad, happy all humanly feelings of no <br />significance for a God. And, worst of all, he did not suffer when he was put to <br />death on the cross, God could not suffer, hence the whole concept of God coming <br />down to earth to suffer and redeem the sins of human kind was loosing sense. <br /><br/><br/>In 312, Arius preached that Jesus is more human than divine and most of the <br />non-greek and non-roman christians followed him. The Council of Nicée (now <br />Iznik) in 325 decided that Jesus is totally God.<br/><br/>A century later, Nestorius, <br />archbishop of Constantinopolis (now Istambul) preached that Jesus has a human <br />nature and a divine nature. This is still the belief of some christians in Iraq <br />(the nestorian church). Cyrille, Archbishop of Alexandria (Egypt) and the <br />Council of Ephèse (Turkey) in 431 fought against Nestorius insisting that Jesus <br />has only one nature simultaneously human (he suffered) and divine (totally God). <br /><br/><br/>Thus Mary, mother of Jesus, could be called "Théotokos", mother of God. This <br />was an outrage to those who said that God had been existing for ever and thus no <br />woman could be called His mother. Reports suggest that the day when the Council <br />in Ephèse approved the word "Théotokos", crowds fought in the streets of Ephèse <br />and left thousands of deads on the pavement. I believe, today, it would be <br />difficult to find people prepared to merely discuss the issue, let alone fight <br />for it. This insistence to a single nature of Jesus created the "monophysite" <br />church which remains in Egypt (coptics) and Ethiopia. The conclusion of Ephèse <br />were later fine tuned by the Council of Chalcédoine (now Kadikoy, Turkey) in 451 <br />whose conclusions are still today the basis of both the orthodox and catholic <br />churches. The words "mother of God" are still present in prayers that are <br />repeated daily by many christians, but I believe most of them do not pay <br />attention to the problem.<br/><br/>The <b><big><font color='#ff0000'>Trinity <br /></font></big></b><font color='#000000'>is a concept that was progressively <br />elaborated over centuries</font>. You remember from above that Jesus of Nazareth <br />was occasionaly referred to as <b><big><font color='#ff0000'>Son of <br />God</font></big></b> (from a greek tradition of the Séleucide hellenistic <br />kingdom) Jesus himself, when he was talking of God, would refer to Him as <br />"<b><big><font color='#ff0000'>the Father who is in Heaven</font></big></b>" Thus <br />it came naturaly to mind that God, although unique, consist of<big><b><font color='#ff0000'> a father and a son</font></b></big>. <br/><br/>The Council in Nicée (325) <br />introduced the third component: the<font color='#ff0000'><b><big> Holy-Spirit, (or <br />Paraclet </big></b></font>from the greek word for "intercessor) He appears as a <br />go-between or a messenger passing words from the Father to the human-kind. His <br />best known action is when all 12 apostles were together after Jesus death, the <br />Holy-Spirit is supposed to come and visit the apostles and send them to preach <br />christianity all over the world. This is a holy day we call White Sunday or <br />Pentecost. <br/><br/>The Holy-Spirit is generally pictured as a white dove. But there has <br />been a lot of fights about<b><big><font color='#ff0000'> the addition of the <br />Holy-Spirit and thus the invention of the Trinity</font></big></b> and it is <br />finally the reason for the separation between the orthodoxe church (Greece, <br />Russia, most slavic countries and many countries in the Near and Middle-East) <br />and the catholic church in 1054. Orthodox (meaning in greek "the right faith") <br />insist that the Father is the most important of the three, Jesus and the <br />Holy-Spirit derive from the Father. Catholics (meaning in greek "Universal") <br />insist the Holy-Spirit derives from the Father <font color='#ff0000'>and the Son <br />(in latin "filioque")</font>, thus putting the father and the son on the same <br />standing.<br/><br/>I hope you found some answers to your questions in the few lines <br />above. And I hope it was not too boring. Do not hesitate to confront my answer <br />to other people who may have a more expert view on the topic. And let me know <br />their feed back if any.<br/><br/>Let me add that at the beginning of the Bible there <br />is a sentence reading approximately "God created man in His own image" I believe <br />that in Christianity like in many other religions, the sentence should be <br />reversed into "Men created God in his own image". <br/></blockquote><br/>  <span class='newsdeta'><span style='font-size: 12pt;'><span style='font-size: 12pt;'><strong><span style='font-size: 12pt;'/></strong></span></span></span><br/><br/></div> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/07800692996425418103' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/07800692996425418103' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>Bu Ziyad</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/christianity.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/christianity.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2010-07-28T21:28:00+03:00'>9:28 PM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='reaction-buttons'> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=38100469&postID=6360936491657101284' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-backlinks post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/christianity.html#links'>Links to this post</a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-action'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/email-post.g?blogID=38100469&postID=6360936491657101284' title='Email Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='13' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_email.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-867791206'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=38100469&postID=6360936491657101284&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div></div> <div class="date-outer"> <h2 class='date-header'><span>Thursday, July 01, 2010</span></h2> <div class="date-posts"> <div class='post-outer'> <div class='post hentry uncustomized-post-template' itemprop='blogPost' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/BlogPosting'> <meta content='38100469' itemprop='blogId'/> <meta content='7426738332654363936' itemprop='postId'/> <a name='7426738332654363936'></a> <h3 class='post-title entry-title' itemprop='name'> <a href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/story-of-emirates.html'>The Story of Emirates</a> </h3> <div class='post-header'> <div class='post-header-line-1'></div> </div> <div class='post-body entry-content' id='post-body-7426738332654363936' itemprop='description articleBody'> <div xmlns='http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml'><blockquote>It began 25 years ago when Gulf Air, a politically contrived joint venture between Abu Dhabi, Bahrain, Oman and Qatar, decided (inexplicably, in retrospect) to cut back its services to Dubai, which was already the region’s transport and trade hub. Dubai’s then ruler, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, responded by asking his younger brother, Sheikh Ahmed, to launch a rival airline. With $10m of start-up capital, a couple of leased aeroplanes (a Boeing 737 and an Airbus A300) and two formidable British aviation executives (Maurice Flanagan and Mr Clark), Emirates was born. After losing a little money in its second year of operation, it has made a profit ever since and doubled in size every three or four years.<br/><br/>Wholly owned by Dubai’s sovereign-wealth fund, it is now one of the world’s most powerful airlines, with 138 planes, all wide-bodied, and 140 more, including 50 A380s, on firm order. Some recession-hit rivals have deferred or cancelled orders, but Mr Clark complains that he can’t get his hands on the new aircraft quickly enough. He sees no problems financing them and is negotiating for even more. By around 2020, Emirates expects to have a fleet of more than 400, dwarfing the long-haul capacity of any other airline. From Dubai, it flies to more than 100 destinations in over 60 countries, reaching every continent.</blockquote><br/><a href='http://www.economist.com/node/16271573'>Aviation in the Gulf: Rulers of the new silk road | The Economist</a><br/><br/>Impressive!<br/></div> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/07800692996425418103' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/07800692996425418103' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>Bu Ziyad</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/story-of-emirates.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/story-of-emirates.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2010-07-01T21:01:00+03:00'>9:01 PM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='reaction-buttons'> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=38100469&postID=7426738332654363936' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-backlinks post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/story-of-emirates.html#links'>Links to this post</a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-action'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/email-post.g?blogID=38100469&postID=7426738332654363936' title='Email Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='13' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_email.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-867791206'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=38100469&postID=7426738332654363936&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class='post-outer'> <div class='post hentry uncustomized-post-template' itemprop='blogPost' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/BlogPosting'> <meta content='38100469' itemprop='blogId'/> <meta content='4724976161692332807' itemprop='postId'/> <a name='4724976161692332807'></a> <h3 class='post-title entry-title' itemprop='name'> <a href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/duba-airport.html'>Duba Airport</a> </h3> <div class='post-header'> <div class='post-header-line-1'></div> </div> <div class='post-body entry-content' id='post-body-4724976161692332807' itemprop='description articleBody'> <div xmlns='http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml'><blockquote>About 42m people a year pass through the airport’s three terminals now, according to Paul Griffiths, Dubai International’s chief executive. Earlier this year it became the world’s third-busiest international airport. With passenger growth running at an annual rate of nearly 20% and capacity planned to reach 90m in the next few years, it will not be long before Dubai overtakes Heathrow.</blockquote><br/><a href='http://www.economist.com/node/16271573'>Aviation in the Gulf: Rulers of the new silk road | The Economist</a><br/><br/>Well at least Kuwait Airport is renovating the luggage conveyors! <br/></div> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/07800692996425418103' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/07800692996425418103' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>Bu Ziyad</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/duba-airport.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/duba-airport.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2010-07-01T20:57:00+03:00'>8:57 PM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='reaction-buttons'> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=38100469&postID=4724976161692332807' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-backlinks post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/duba-airport.html#links'>Links to this post</a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-action'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/email-post.g?blogID=38100469&postID=4724976161692332807' title='Email Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='13' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_email.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-867791206'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=38100469&postID=4724976161692332807&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div></div> </div> <div class='blog-pager' id='blog-pager'> <span id='blog-pager-newer-link'> <a class='blog-pager-newer-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/' id='Blog1_blog-pager-newer-link' title='Newer Posts'>Newer Posts</a> </span> <span id='blog-pager-older-link'> <a class='blog-pager-older-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/search?updated-max=2010-07-01T20:57:00%2B03:00' id='Blog1_blog-pager-older-link' title='Older Posts'>Older Posts</a> </span> <a class='home-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/'>Home</a> </div> <div class='clear'></div> <div class='blog-feeds'> <div class='feed-links'> Subscribe to: <a class='feed-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/feeds/posts/default' target='_blank' type='application/atom+xml'>Posts (Atom)</a> </div> </div> <script type='text/javascript'> window.___gcfg = { 'lang': 'en-US' }; </script> </div></div> </div> <div id='sidebar-wrapper'> <div class='sidebar section' id='sidebar'><div class='widget Gadget' data-version='1' id='Gadget1'> There was an error in this gadget <div class='clear'></div> <span class='widget-item-control'> <span class='item-control blog-admin'> <a class='quickedit' href='//www.blogger.com/rearrange?blogID=38100469&widgetType=Gadget&widgetId=Gadget1&action=editWidget§ionId=sidebar' onclick='return _WidgetManager._PopupConfig(document.getElementById("Gadget1"));' target='configGadget1' title='Edit'> <img alt='' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_wrench_allbkg.png' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='clear'></div> </div><div class='widget Profile' data-version='1' id='Profile1'> <h2>About Me</h2> <div class='widget-content'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/07800692996425418103'><img alt='My photo' class='profile-img' height='55' src='//2.bp.blogspot.com/_7PUEaVcU8Bo/SPBdpfiS6ZI/AAAAAAAAAGY/vp6sMXr1nlc/S220-s80/DSC00024.JPG' width='80'/></a> <dl class='profile-datablock'> <dt class='profile-data'> <a class='profile-name-link g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/07800692996425418103' rel='author' style='background-image: url(//www.blogger.com/img/logo-16.png);'> Bu Ziyad </a> </dt> <dd class='profile-textblock'>Interested in economics and other moral conundrums.. 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class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2012/01/'> January </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(1)</span> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/'> 2011 </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(28)</span> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/12/'> December </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(1)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/11/'> November </a> <span class='post-count' 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class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/07/'> July </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/06/'> June </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(1)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/05/'> May </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(4)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/04/'> April </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(3)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/03/'> March </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(4)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/02/'> February </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2011/01/'> January </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(1)</span> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate expanded'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy toggle-open'> ▼  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/'> 2010 </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(33)</span> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/12/'> December </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(1)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/11/'> November </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/10/'> October </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/09/'> September </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/08/'> August </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(3)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate expanded'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy toggle-open'> ▼  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/'> July </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(3)</span> <ul class='posts'> <li><a href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/christianity.html'>Christianity</a></li> <li><a href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/story-of-emirates.html'>The Story of Emirates</a></li> <li><a href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/07/duba-airport.html'>Duba Airport</a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/06/'> June </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(4)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/05/'> May </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(5)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/04/'> April </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(3)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/03/'> March </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/02/'> February </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(1)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2010/01/'> January </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(5)</span> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/'> 2009 </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(45)</span> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/12/'> December </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/11/'> November </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(1)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/10/'> October </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(5)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/09/'> September </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(5)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/08/'> August </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/07/'> July </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(6)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/06/'> June </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(3)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/05/'> May </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/04/'> April </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(3)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/03/'> March </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/02/'> February </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(6)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2009/01/'> January </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(8)</span> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/'> 2008 </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(94)</span> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/12/'> December </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(9)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/11/'> November </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(6)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/10/'> October </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(12)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/09/'> September </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(11)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/08/'> August </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(10)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/07/'> July </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(8)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/06/'> June </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(4)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/05/'> May </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(5)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/04/'> April </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(8)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/03/'> March </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(10)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/02/'> February </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(6)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2008/01/'> January </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(5)</span> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/'> 2007 </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(89)</span> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/12/'> December </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(2)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/11/'> November </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(10)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/10/'> October </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(6)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/09/'> September </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(6)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/08/'> August </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(4)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/07/'> July </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(8)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/06/'> June </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(11)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/05/'> May </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(11)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/04/'> April </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(11)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/03/'> March </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(12)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/02/'> February </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(5)</span> </li> </ul> <ul class='hierarchy'> <li class='archivedate collapsed'> <a class='toggle' href='javascript:void(0)'> <span class='zippy'> ►  </span> </a> <a class='post-count-link' href='http://www.q80economics.com/2007/01/'> January </a> <span class='post-count' dir='ltr'>(3)</span> </li> </ul> </li> </ul> 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